There are many interrelated process, which are involved in acquisition of remotely sensed images, hence an isolated focus on any single component produces a fragmented picture. It is necessary to identify these components to have proper knowledge of remote sensing.
There four essential components of it:
The first component includes the physical features, like buildings, vegetation, soil, water and rocks. Knowledge of the physical features resides within such specific disciplines as geology, forestry, soil science, geography, and urban planning.
Sensor data are formed as a sensing device views the physical features by recording electromagnetic signals emitted or reflected from the landscape. The effective use of sensor of sensor data requires analysis and interpretation of to convert data into useful information.
These interpretations create extracted information, which consists of transformations of sensor data designed to reveal specific kinds of information. A more realistic view demonstrates that the same sensor data can be examined from alternative perspectives to yield different interpretations. Therefore a single can be interpreted to provide information about, for instance, vegetation, soils, rocks, water, depending on the specific data, information required and the purpose of the analysis.
The fourth component is the applications, in which the analyzed remote sensing data can be combined with other data to address a specific practical problem, such as land use planning, mineral exploration or vegetation mapping.